Seleucus arrived in time to save Lysimachus and utterly crushed Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC. Bugh, Glenn R. (editor). The Seleucid–Parthian wars continued as the Seleucids invaded Mesopotamia under Antiochus VII Sidetes (Template:Reigned), but he was eventually killed by a Parthian counterattack.  Known as the "Father of Geography", Eratosthenes also created the first map of the world incorporating parallels and meridians, based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. This map shows the total area conquered and controlled by Philip II. This distinction is remarked upon in William M. Ramsay (revised by Mark W. Wilson). Typically, historians start the Hellenistic Age with the death of Alexander, whose empire spread from India to Africa, in 323 B.C. Doson led Macedon to victory in the war against the Spartan king Cleomenes III, and occupied Sparta. Astrology was widely associated with the cult of Tyche (luck, fortune), which grew in popularity during this period. Despite their initial reluctance, the Successors seem to have later deliberately naturalized themselves to their different regions, presumably in order to help maintain control of the population. Art of the Hellenistic Age and the Hellenistic Tradition. Bolos of Mendes made developments in alchemy and Theophrastus was known for his work in plant classification. Although they initially resisted, allying themselves with Pyrrhus of Epirus, and defeating the Romans at several battles, the Greek cities were unable to maintain this position and were absorbed by the Roman republic. Antigonus remained in charge of Asia Minor, Ptolemy retained Egypt, Lysimachus retained Thrace and Seleucus I controlled Babylon. The Cambridge Companion to the Hellenistic World, 2007. p. 43.  Antiochus IV Epiphanes sacked Jerusalem and looted the Temple in 169 BC after disturbances in Judea during his abortive invasion of Egypt. This Roman-Greek interaction began as a consequence of the Greek city-states located along the coast of southern Italy. The struggles with Rome had left Greece depopulated and demoralised. Whatever the case, tensions between pro- and anti-Seleucid Jewish factions led to the 174–135 BC Maccabean Revolt of Judas Maccabeus (whose victory is celebrated in the Jewish festival of Hanukkah). For geographical distribution of Greek speakers, see. the death of Alexander the Great. Antiochus then banned key Jewish religious rites and traditions in Judea. Olympus with their divine music, dancing, and singing. It became a center of culture and commerce, its coins were widely circulated and its philosophical schools became one of the best in the Mediterranean. In 307 BC he took Athens, expelling Demetrius of Phaleron, Cassander's governor, and proclaiming the city free again. The conquests of Alexander greatly widened the horizons of the Greek world, making the endless conflicts between the cities which had marked the 5th and 4th centuries BC seem petty and unimportant.  His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia (who worked under Alexander, Antigonus I and other successors), Duris of Samos and Phylarchus which were used by surviving sources are all lost. During the Hellenistic period, many different schools of thought developed, and these schools of Hellenistic philosophy had a significant influence on the Greek and Roman ruling elite. 323 B.C. He also brought Persian and other non-Greek peoples into his military and even the elite cavalry units of the companion cavalry. It has been noted by Herodotus that after the establishment of the Athenian democracy: ...the Athenians found themselves suddenly a great power. Other Scythians on the steppes of Central Asia came into contact with Hellenistic culture through the Greeks of Bactria. The west Balkan coast was inhabited by various Illyrian tribes and kingdoms such as the kingdom of the Dalmatae and of the Ardiaei, who often engaged in piracy under Queen Teuta (reigned 231–227 BC). Other sources include Justin's (2nd century AD) epitome of Pompeius Trogus' Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrian's Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople.  It has recently been claimed that a celestial globe based on Hipparchus' star catalog sits atop the broad shoulders of a large 2nd-century Roman statue known as the Farnese Atlas. The Greek population and the native population did not always mix; the Greeks moved and brought their own culture, but interaction did not always occur. The Hellenistic Age began in June, 323 B. C., when Alexander the Great lay dying in Babylon, and on being asked to whom he left his conquests, replied, … Antipater was made regent of the Empire, and the two kings were moved to Macedon.  The rise of philosophy and the sciences had removed the gods from many of their traditional domains such as their role in the movement of the heavenly bodies and natural disasters. The rebels were supported by Lysimachus, the satrap of Thrace and Ptolemy, the satrap of Egypt. In c. 210 BC, the Greco-Bactrian kingdom was invaded by a resurgent Seleucid empire under Antiochus III. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe, or Berenice. Like Rome, the United States has. Other regions had established contact with Greek colonies before this period, and simply saw a continued process of Hellenization and intermixing. 83-86, para. Pergamum broke away under Eumenes I who defeated a Seleucid army sent against him. He ruled until 238 BC when Arsaces, the leader of the Parni tribe conquered Parthia, killing Andragoras and inaugurating the Arsacid Dynasty.  The city became a dominant trading hub and center of Hellenistic civilization in Iberia, eventually siding with the Roman Republic against the Carthaginian Empire during the Second Punic War (218–201 BC). However, Macedon had a relatively strong and centralized government, and compared to most Greek states, directly controlled a large area. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint and the philosophies of Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Pyrrhonism. Michael Rostovtzeff, who fled the Russian Revolution, concentrated predominantly on the rise of the capitalist bourgeoisie in areas of Greek rule. The level of Hellenistic achievement in astronomy and engineering is impressively shown by the Antikythera mechanism (150–100 BC). He was quickly hailed as king of Macedon and went on to rule for 35 years.. 370 BC), the Achaean League (est. Spartan hegemony was succeeded by a Theban hegemony after the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), but after the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), all of Greece was so weakened that no one state could claim pre-eminence. Epirus was a northwestern Greek kingdom in the western Balkans ruled by the Molossian Aeacidae dynasty. The coins minted in Massalia have been found in all parts of Liguro-Celtic Gaul.  These cities included newly founded colonies such as Antioch, the other cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, Seleucia (north of Babylon) and Dura-Europos on the Euphrates. This 'Greco-Macedonian' population (which also included the sons of settlers who had married local women) could make up a phalanx of 35,000 men (out of a total Seleucid army of 80,000) during the reign of Antiochus III. Hellenistic-era warships grew from the trireme to include more banks of oars and larger numbers of rowers and soldiers as in the Quadrireme and Quinquereme. Various parts of Thrace were under Macedonian rule under Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Lysimachus, Ptolemy II, and Philip V but were also often ruled by their own kings.  Tylos even became the site of Greek athletic contests..  Promotion of immigration from Greece was important in the establishment of this system.  A large number of the Macedonian population had also been resettled abroad by Alexander or had chosen to emigrate to the new eastern Greek cities. Hellenistic period (c. 323–1st Century bc) The Hellenistic period began with the incorporation of the Persian Empire into the Greek world, specifically with the death of Alexander the Great (323 bc). Greeks continued being an important part of the cultural world of India for generations. 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